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Biology from a Christian PerspectiveEdit
"And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind"
- God was all knowing, understanding the conflict of creationism and Biological Evolution.
- It clearly states that whales reproduce whales and birds reproduced birds.
- Unlike in Biological Evolution.
Major Christian TheoriesEdit
- Theistic Evolution – the belief that God works through the natural process of evolution.
- Creationism – The scientific theory proposing that each living organism was created separately (in much present form) by a supernatural being.
Types of EvolutionEdit
- Micro-Evolution – Small changes within the species of a gene pool.
- Macro-Evolution – The origin, over time, of fundamentally new organisms from prior life forms.
Other Important TermsEdit
- Teleology – The study of design and purpose in nature.
- Irreducible Complexity – The philosophical concept that considers the complexty of living organism – if any part is removed, the system loses function.
Fossil Gaps and Intermediate FormsEdit
"The geological record is extremely imperfect"One reason the fossil record does not support the evolutionary theory is that many life forms appear in the very earliest rocks without any indication of forms from which they could have evolved.
The lack of fossils supporting the transitional phases between species is perhaps the single most embarrassing topic for evolutionists.
Biology from an Islamic PerspectiveEdit
"The basic Islamic concept is that the entire universe was created by God, whom Islam calls Allah and who is the Lord and Soveregin of the universe. He is the Lord of the universe which He alone sustains"
– Khurshid Ahmad
- Very similar to Christianity.
The Islamic Creation StoryEdit
- Muslims believe that God's creation is perfect.
- Creation in Six or Eight Days?
- Some passages say six days; one other say eight days.
- Creation and Fall
- Muslims believe we are made perfect and not corrupted.
- Muslims regularly appeal to the order of the universe as evidence of Allah's existence and creative activity.
- Majority of Muslims reject evolutionary theory on both religious and scientific grounds.
Biology from a Secular Humanist PerspectiveEdit
"Man is the result of a purposeless and natural process that did not have him in mind. He was not planned. He is a state of matter, a form of life, a sort of animal, and a species of the Order Primates, akin nearly or remotely to all of life and indeed to all that is material."
– George Gaylord Simpson
Evolution as a FactEdit
"Evolution is a fact, not a theory."
– Carl Sagan
"The first point to make about Darwin's theory is that it is no longer theory but a fact."For the humanist, atheistic evolution is not one option among many, but rather the only option compatible to their worldview. Creationism, or Intelligent Design, is considered an enemy of science.
– Thomas Huxley
Spontaneous Generation and Natural SelectionEdit
- Spontaneous Generation – the theory that non-living matter gave rise to living organisms.
Probably all the organic beings that have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed."Humanist cannot afford such a concession!
– Charles Darwin
- Natural Selection – the mechanism proposed by Darwin that, through competition and other factors such as predators, geography and time, only those life forms best suited to survive will live and reproduce.
What Idea is Darwin leaving out?
- Neo-Darwinism – the theory that new species arise from natural selection acting over vast periods of time on chance genetic mutations in reproductively isolated populations.
Are Mutations always good???
The fossil record is the only means available to the scientist to observe steps in the evolutionary process.
- Cambrian Explosion – the sudden appearance of most major groups of animals.
- Punctuated Equilibrium – claims that science cannot discover the links between species in the fossil record because the change from one species to another occurs too rapidly, geologically speaking, to leave accurate fossil documentation.
How does this idea mesh with Darwin's Theory?
- Vast Period of Time = Too Rapidly
- How is that possible?
- Little Logic
"If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modification, my theory would absolutely break down."Humanist consider evolution the correct foundation for every individual's worldview and believe that a proper understanding of the world comes only from this perspective.
– Charles Darwin from The Origin of the Species
"Darwin's Origin of Species is very important and provides me with the basis in natural science for the class struggle in history."
– Karl Marx
Just as Darwin discovered the law of evolution in organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of evolution in human history.
– Friedrich Engels
If nature is dialectical (Hegelian process of change) Darwin's notion about the mechanism nature employed to create species were correct, then Marx believed Darwin's theory was dialectical.
- Punctuated Evolution – The Theory of evolution that proposes that evolutionary change occur over a relatively quick period of time, followed by periods of little to no evolutionary change.
This idea better fits the dialectical thought process according to Marxists.
Cosmic Humanist BiologyEdit
Cosmic Humanist Biology is based on a belief in positive evolutionary change over time.
- Cosmic Evolution – the progression of collective humanity toward an age of higher consciousness.
According to Postmodernist, evolution, creationism, and intelligent design are just meta-narratives. They are all creations of the human mind. The only problem is that they will assume anything but creationism. Postmodernists embrace the only other alternative – one of the several forms of evolution.